Back to the North Africa Game Menu

North Africa

Standard Rules
for the games
Crusader, Cauldron, Supercharge, Kasserine

Copyright © 2008, Decision Games LLC and Decision Games


[1.0] Introduction

The North Africa game system is a simulation of World War II ground combat in the North African desert. Each game in the system represents a clash between Allied and Axis forced during the see-saw struggle which raged from 1941 to 1943. The playing pieces represent the actual units which participated in the battles, and the map represents the actual terrain over which those units fought. Two rules folders are provided. The first contains Standard Rules, which are common to all the games in the North African system. The second folder contains Exclusive Rules for each game in the system, and the Initial Deployment and Reinforcement Rules.

The game has been designed to insure maximum playability and maximum reality (in that order). In order to achieve these goals, the physical components, as well as the game rules, have been designed to make the game easier to understand and play. The components include a smaller, more compact playing map, never more than a hundred playing pieces and standardized rules.

The standardization makes it easier for the gamer to go from one game to another within the series. It also enables the games' designers to concentrate on the realism aspect of the games. (The standardization generally takes care of any playability problems).

Start of page

[2.0] Game Equipment

[2.1] The Game Map

N/A - HexWar Edition

Start of page

[2.2] Charts and Tables

Various visual aids are provided for the Players in order to simplify and illustrate certain game functions. These are the Combat Results Table, the Terrain Key, and the Turn Record/Reinforcement Track.

Start of page

[2.3] The Playing Pieces

The numbers and symbols on the pieces represent the strength, movement capability, and type of unit represented by the piece. These playing pieces will hereafter be referred to as "units."

[2.31] How to Read the Units:

Unit Designations

The superior formation is shown to the right of the slash. Divisional designations are shown to the right of the unit symbol.

Unit Sizes

II=Battalion, III=Regiment, X=Brigade, XX= Division.

[2.32] Definition of Terms

Attack Strength is the relative strength of a non-artillery unit with regard to attacking other units, expressed in terms of Attack Strength Points.

Defense Strength is the relative strength of a unit with regard to defending against the attacks of Enemy units, and is expressed in terms of Defense Strength Points.

Barrage Strength is the relative strength of an Artillery unit when attacking Enemy units, and is expressed in terms of Barrage Strength Points.

Final Protective Fire (FPF) Strength is the relative ability of an Artillery unit to add to the Defense Strength of Friendly units, and is expressed in terms of FPF Strength Points.

Movement Allowance is the maximum number of Trail hexsides through which a unit may be moved in a single Movement Phase; each such hexside crossed requires one Movement Point of the total Movement Allowance to be expended. Note that the basic terrain type is Mixed terrain (there is no "clear" terrain); Mixed terrain costs two Movement Points per hex. Other terrain may require more than two Movement Points to enter (see the Terrain Key on the map).

Range Allowance is the maximum number of hexes from the hex of the Artillery unit using its FPF or Barrage Strength (exclusive), to the defending unit's hex (inclusive).

Start of page

[2.4] Game Scale

Each hexagon on the map sheet represents from 1.7 to 3.0 miles of real terrain from side to side. Each Game-Turn is equivalent to one day of real time.

Start of page

[3.0] Setting Up the Game

The cardboard playing pieces should be punched out of the Unit Counter Sheet. The differently colored units represent forces of opposing sides. Players should determine which side each will play. The Players then consult their respective Initial Deployment Charts. These charts tell the strength of each unit which is in play (on the map) during the First Game-Turn. Unit values are listed as follows: Attack Strength-Defense Strength- Movement Allowance. For Artillery units: Barrage Strength - Final Protective Fire Strength - Range Allowance/Defense Strength - Movement Allowance. Units may be assigned to specific set-up hexes or Players may be instructed to choose the set-up hexes for their units, in which case one Player or the other will be instructed to deploy first.

The Exclusive Rules indicate which Player is the First Player. The Victory Conditions tell how the game is won. Play proceeds according to the Sequence of Play for the number of Game-Turns specified.

Start of page

[4.0] Sequence of Play

This game is played in successive Game-Turns, composed of alternate Player-Turns. During each Game-Turn the Players maneuver their units and resolve combat in sequence, according to the following outline and within the limits provided by the rules which follow. At the conclusion of the last Game-Turn, the Victory Conditions are consulted and a winner is determined.


[4.1] Sequence Outline

The Game-Turn

The Game-Turn is divided into a First Player-Turn and a Second Player-Turn. The Player whose Player-Turn is currently in progress is termed the Phasing Player. The activity which may take place during each Phase is outlined below.

1. First Player-Turn

A. Movement Phase: The Phasing Player may move all, some or none of his units as he desires within the limits and restrictions of the rules of Movement, Zones of Control, Terrain Effects and Exclusive Rules of the game. The Phasing Player may bring Reinforcements onto the map as allowed by his Reinforcement Schedule and the Reinforcement Rules. The non-Phasing Player may not move his units.

B. Combat Phase: The Phasing Player uses his units to attack the non-Phasing Player's units. The Phasing Player may execute his attacks in any order he desires. Each attack follows the following sub-sequence where appropriate.

a. The Phasing Player states the number and strength of his attacking ground units.

b. The Phasing Player allocates Barrage Strength Points (if he wishes) from Artillery units and Ground Support Points.

c. The non-Phasing Player allocates Final Protective Fire Strength (if he wishes) from non-adjacent Artillery units and Ground Support Points.

d. The Combat Differential (total attacking strength minus total defending strength) is calculated, the terrain-type occupied by the defending unit is found and the combat differential column from that line is consulted. The die is rolled under that heading (see Combat Results Table) and the indicated result is immediately applied.

During the Combat Phase, neither Player may move his units, except when called for as a result of combat.

2. Second Player-Turn

The Second Player now becomes the Phasing Player and executes Movement and Combat in the sequence described above.

Start of page

[5.0] Movement

General Rule:

During the Movement Phase, the Phasing Player may move as many or as few of his units as he desires. The units may be moved in any direction or combination of directions.


Units are moved one at a time, tracing a path of contiguous hexes through the hex grid. As each unit enters a hex, that unit pays one or more Movement Points from its Movement Allowance.


[5.1] Movement Restrictions and Prohibitions


Movement may never take place out of sequence. A Player's units may be moved during his own Movement Phase. During the Combat Phase, a unit which is either attacking or defending may be called upon to advance or retreat after Combat is resolved. During the Enemy Player's Movement Phase, and during both Players' Combat Phases, except when advancing or retreating as a result of Combat, Friendly units must not be moved.


A Friendly unit may never enter a hex containing an Enemy unit.


A unit may never expend more Movement Points than its total Movement Allowance in any one Movement Phase. A unit may expend all, some or none of its Movement Points in any one Game-Turn, but unused Movement Points may not be accumulated until another Movement Phase or transferred to another unit.


A unit may never exit an Enemy-controlled hex during any Movement Phase. An Enemy-controlled hex may be left only during a retreat or advance as a result of combat (unless otherwise noted in the Exclusive Rules).


Once a unit has been moved and the Player's hand taken from the piece, it may not be moved any further during the Player-Turn nor may it change its move without the consent of the opposing Player.

Start of page

[5.2] Effects of Terrain


A unit must expend two Movement Points to enter a Mixed terrain hex. To enter other types of hexes, a unit must expend more than two Movement Points. When the Terrain Key calls for a Movement Point expenditure to cross a terrain hexside, this cost is in addition to the terrain cost for entering the hex. Movement Point costs are summarized on the Terrain Key on the map. Movement Point costs are cumulative.


A unit which moves from one Road hex directly into an adjacent Road hex through a Road hexside expends only 1/2 Movement Point (regardless of other terrain in the hex) plus the cost for any Minefield hexsides.


A unit which moves from one Trail hex directly into an adjacent Trail hex through a Trail hexside expends one Movement Point (regardless of other terrain in the hex) plus the cost for any Minefield and Ditch hexsides.


Example: A mechanized unit moves from one Mixed terrain hex to an adjacent Mixed terrain hex, passing through a Road hexside which is also a Friendly Minefield hexside. The unit would pay 4 Movement Points in doing so.


A unit may only move across an Escarpment hexside via either a Road or Trail. Movement through an Escarpment is not permitted except via Road or Trail hexsides.


A unit may not enter a hex if it does not have sufficient Movement Points remaining to pay the Movement Point cost to enter the hex itself and the hexside being crossed. The unmarked hexes on the map(s) are "Mixed" not "Clear" terrain (as indicated on the Terrain Key). There are no "Clear" terrain hexes.

Start of page

[5.3] Effects of Other Friendly Units


A Friendly unit may move through hexes occupied by other Friendly units (at no extra Movement Point cost), but may not end the Movement Phase stacked in the same hex with another Friendly unit. Stacking is prohibited.


There is no limit to the number of Friendly units that may pass through a single hex in one Game-Turn.


Friendly-controlled hexes never interfere with Friendly movement.

Start of page

[6.0] Zones of Control

General Rule:

The six hexagons immediately surrounding a hex constitute the Zone of Control (ZOC) of any unit in that hex. Hexes upon which a unit exerts a Zone of Control are called controlled hexes and inhibit the movement of Enemy units: All units must cease movement when they enter an Enemy-controlled hex.


[6.1] Effects on Movement


All units exert a Zone of Control at all times, regardless of the Phase or the Player-Turn, during the entire Game-Turn. The presence of Zones of Control is never affected by other units, Enemy or Friendly.


Units do not pay an additional Movement Point cost to enter an Enemy-controlled hex.


There are only two ways to exit a hex in an Enemy Zone of Control: Either by retreat or advance as a result of combat, or by removal of the Enemy unit exerting the Zone of Control as a result of combat.


Zones of Control extend into all types of terrain hexes and across all types of terrain hexsides (except those prohibited to movement).


Zones of Control do not extend through an Escarpment, except across Road or Trail hexsides.

Start of page

[6.2] Multiple Zones


If there are both Enemy and Friendly Zones of Control exerted over a given hex, they have no effect on each other; both Zones co-exist and the hex is mutually controlled by both Players.


There is no additional effect when more than one unit exerts its Zone of Control on a given hex.


Obviously, if a given unit is in an Enemy controlled hex, the Enemy unit is also in its controlled hex. The two units are equally and mutually affected.

Start of page

[7.0] Combat

General Rule:

Combat between adjacent opposing units is mandatory. Artillery units (see Section 8.0) are the only units which may attack units to which they are not adjacent. See also the Ground Support Rules (Section 9.0).

The Phasing Player is termed the attacker; the other Player the defender, regardless of the overall strategic situation.


Total the Attack Strength, Barrage Strength and Ground Support Strength of all attacking units involved in a specific attack; total the Defense Strength and the Final Protective Fire of all units which are the object of that specific attack. Subtract the total Strength of the defending units. The result is the Combat Differential, expressed in Points. It may be either a positive or a negative number.

Consult the Combat Results Table, and find the terrain type which the defending unit occupies. Directly across that line, find the appropriate Combat Differential column. Roll the die under that column heading, and then apply any combat results immediately, before resolving any additional attacks that are being made in the same Combat Phase. Example: If thirteen Strength Points were attacking a unit with four Strength Points in a Mixed terrain hex, the Combat Differential would be "+9." The attack would be resolved at "+9-11" on the line corresponding to Mixed terrain. (A die roll of one would result in a "D4").

Having determined the proper column on the Combat Results Table (7.61), the attacker rolls the die. The result indicates a line which is cross-indexed with the proper column. The intersection of line and column yields a combat result. This should be immediately applied to the involved units, before going on to resolve any other combat. Separate combats may be resolved in any order that the attacker wishes, so long as all combats are resolved during that Combat Phase.


[7.1] Which Units Attack


Each non-Phasing unit that has a Phasing unit adjacent to it must be attacked by some Phasing unit during that Combat Phase. The Phasing Player may resolve these attacks in any fashion desired, so long as all units are attacked within the requirements of Case 7.2 (exception: see Cases 7.46 and 10.21).


All of the Phasing Player's units which end ( the Movement Phase in an Enemy-controlled hex must attack some Enemy unit during the ensuing Combat Phase. The Phasing Player may choose which units will attack each defending unit, as long as all adjacent Friendly units participate in an attack.


A defending unit may be attacked by as many as six adjacent units, with the possible addition of Artillery Barrage Strength (see Section 8.0) and Ground Support (see Section 9.0).


No unit may attack more than once per Combat Phase, and no Enemy unit may be attacked more than once per Combat Phase.


Non-Artillery units may attack only if in a hex adjacent to the defending unit.

Start of page

[7.2] Multiple Unit and Multi-Hex Combat


If a Phasing Player's unit is in a Zone of Control of more than one Enemy unit, it must attack all those adjacent Enemy units which are not engaged by some other attacking unit (exception: see Case 10.21).


Units in two or more different hexes may combine their Combat Strengths and attack a single hex, if all the attacking units are adjacent to (or are within range of) the Enemy-occupied hex.


Attacks may involve any number of attacking or defending units. For the attacks to be resolved as a single combat, however, all the attacking units must be adjacent to all the defending units, with the addition of Barraging Artillery units, which need not be adjacent.

Start of page

[7.3] Combat Strength Unity

A given unit's Attack and Defense Strengths are always unitary. That is, a unit's Strength may not be divided among different combats, either for attack or defense.

Start of page

[7.4] Effects of Terrain


Defending units, only, benefit from the terrain in the hex they occupy and/or that hex's perimeter hexsides. Terrain in hexes occupied by attacking units has no effect on combat.


A defending unit does not benefit from a Ridge, Stream or Ditch unless all units attacking that defending unit are attacking through a hex-side of any of the above types (see Case 10.22). Roads and Trails do not negate the effects of these terrain types on combat.


The effect of terrain (on combat) has been integrated into the Combat Results Table. Simply find the terrain which the defending unit benefits from, trace over to the proper Combat Differential column, and roll the die under that column heading.


A defending unit always benefits only from the most advantageous terrain to which it is entitled. Example: A unit in Rough terrain behind a Ridge hexside would benefit from the Rough terrain only.


When two or more defending units are being attacked in a single combat and are on two different types of terrain, each having a different effect on the Combat Differential, then all defending units benefit from the terrain most favorable to the defender.


Combat is not mandatory and is not permitted between adjacent opposing units which are separated by an Escarpment hexside, unless that hexside is traversed by either a Road or Trail. There is no special restriction or terrain effect on combat across either a Road/Escarpment or Trail/Escarpment hexside.

Start of page

[7.5] Diversionary Attacks


In making a series of attacks, a Player may allocate his attacking units so that some attacks are made at "poor" Differentials, so that adjacent attacks may be made at more advantageous Differentials (by allotting most of the attacking force to the major objectives). These attacks are known as diversionary or holding attacks.


The Phasing Player may never voluntary reduce the Differential of any given attack. That is, he may never voluntarily shift to the left of his Combat Differential column.

Start of page

[7.6] Combat Resolution

[7.61] Combat Results Table

(See other help pages or the help menu in the game).

[7.62] Explanation of Results

D1, 2, 3 or 4=Defender Retreats the indicated number of hexes (1,2,3,4). Each Player retreats his own units. He must retreat his units in accordance with the Retreat Rules (see Case 7.7). Units may not retreat across prohibited hexsides (see Terrain Key).

A1 or 2=Attacker Retreats the indicated number of hexes.

Br=Both the attacker and defender must retreat one hex. The defender retreats first. [Thus, if the defender is surrounded by units or Zones of Control, it is eliminated.] The attacking units then retreat.

Ae=Attacker Eliminated. Defender may advance into the hex.

Start of page

[7.7] How To Retreat

Defender retreat is always executed by the computer AI, otherwise when the Owning Player must immediately move those units the indicated number of hexes away from their combat position. This movement is not normal movement and is subject to the following restrictions, If the unit is unable to retreat within these restrictions, it is eliminated instead.


In retreating, a unit may initially leave an Enemy-controlled hex; thereafter, it may not enter an Enemy-controlled hex. Friendly units do not negate Enemy Zones of Control for purposes of retreat.


A retreating unit may not cross a prohibited hexside or enter a prohibited hex (see Terrain Key).


Where possible, a retreating unit must retreat into and through vacant hexes. If no other route is available, the retreating unit may move through Friendly-occupied hexes, displacing every Friendly unit whose hex it moves into or through (see Case 7.8).


In all cases, the retreating unit must terminate its retreat the Combat Result-indicated number of hexes away from its former combat position. If it cannot, and can retreat only a portion of the number of obligated hexes, it is eliminated in the last hex to which it is able to retreat. The retreat path (see Case 7.91) terminates in the hex a unit is eliminated in.


In complying with a "Br" result, an attacking unit may not retreat into a hex formerly occupied by the defending unit.


A unit may freely retreat through Friendly and Enemy Minefield hexsides.

Start of page

[7.8] Displacement


If Friendly units occupy hexes in the only possible retreat route available to a retreating unit, those Friendly units are displaced (moved out of their hexes) by the retreating unit. The displaced unit is moved one hex (by the Owning Player) as if it were itself retreating. Then the retreating unit enters the vacated hex and, if necessary, continues its retreat. The retreating unit may displace as many units as necessary to retreat the indicated number of hexes.


If the displacement would cause any of the displaced units to be eliminated, the retreating unit is eliminated instead. Displaced units can themselves displace other Friendly units in a sort of chain reaction of displacement, if that is the only permitted path of displacement open to them. A unit may be displaced more than once per Combat Phase, if that is the only alternative. Displaced Artillery units which have not yet engaged in combat, may not fire during that Combat Phase. Units may not displace other Friendly units if they have other paths of retreat open to them.


If a retreating unit displaces a unit in a hex which the Phasing Player had intended to Barrage Attack, the attack against that hex may not take place. Of course, the displaced unit may be Barrage Attacked in its new hex.

Start of page

[7.9] Advance After Combat


Whenever an Enemy unit is forced to retreat (or is eliminated) as a result of combat, it will leave a path of vacant hexes behind it called the Path of Retreat (this includes hexes vacated pursuant to Case 7.74). Any or all Friendly victorious units which participated in the combat and were adjacent to the retreated unit are allowed to advance along the Enemy Path of Retreat.


The advancing victorious units may cease advancing at any hex along the Path of Retreat.


Victorious units advancing along the Path of Retreat may ignore Enemy Zones of Control (see 10.14).


Only victorious units which were adjacent to the retreating unit during the combat and participated in that combat may advance. Non-adjacent Artillery units may not advance after combat.


Any unit permitted to advance may, alternately, advance independent of the Path of Retreat in any desired direction. This independent advance is governed by the following restrictions:

1) A unit which is not advancing along the Path of Retreat may advance a number of hexes equal to the required Enemy retreat. For example, if an Enemy unit vacates a hex due to a "D4" result, a Friendly victorious unit which participated in that combat may advance as far as four hexes in any desired direction. If the Enemy unit is unable to retreat the full required amount, the Friendly unit could still advance the full number of hexes specified in the combat result.

2) A unit which is not advancing along the Path of Retreat must stop in the first Enemy-controlled hex it enters.

3) A unit which is not advancing along the Path of Retreat is prohibited from crossing an Enemy minefield, and may not cross any prohibited terrain.

An advancing unit may take a portion of its advance along the Path of Retreat and the remainder of that advance independent of the Path of Retreat.


The option to advance must be exercised immediately before any other combat resolution. Units are never forced to advance after combat. After advancing, units may neither attack nor be attacked in that Phase (see Case 7.14), even if their advance places them next to Enemy units whose battles are yet to be resolved, or who were not involved in combat. However, advances are useful in cutting off the retreat of Enemy units whose combat has not yet been resolved.


Example: The Combat Result is 'D4;" the defeated unit must retreat four hexes. The Path of Retreat is shown by the dotted line. Units A and B have advanced along the Path of Retreat. Unit C advanced along the Path of Retreat for two hexes, then strayed from the Path of Retreat with the third hex it entered. Since this hex is in an Enemy Zone of Control, unit C must cease movement in this hex, even though it has moved only three of the four hexes specified in the Combat Result.

Start of page

[8.0] Artillery

General Rule:

Artillery units may participate in combat from adjacent and non-adjacent hexes. The Artillery unit's Barrage Strength may be used to attack Enemy units. The Artillery unit's Final Protective Fire Strength may be used to supplement the Defense Strengths of other Friendly defending units. In either case, Artillery units need not be adjacent to, but must be within range of the defending unit. An Artillery unit may use both its Barrage Strength and Final Protective Fire in a single Game-Turn. When attacked, an Artillery unit defends itself with its own Defense Strength.


[8.1] Barrage Attacks


Artillery units may attack non-adjacent Enemy units up to the extent of their Range Allowance, but they are never forced to attack an Enemy unit merely because it is within range. Artillery units are not subject to Line of Sight restrictions.


Range from the Barraging Artillery unit to the defending unit is counted by including the target hex (defending unit's hex), but not the Barraging unit's hex.


Artillery units may only attack a single Enemy-occupied hex when Barraging, except when making a combined attack with other units attacking from adjacent hexes (see Case 8.2).


Barraging Artillery (Artillery attacking from a non-adjacent hex) suffer no Combat Results; they are never destroyed or retreated as a result of their own attacks. Of course, other units cooperating with the Barraging Artillery units from an adjacent position would be affected by Combat Results.


In attacks made solely by Artillery and/or Ground Support Strength, only Combat Results of D4 affect the defending unit.

Start of page

[8.2] Combined Attacks

[8.21] Artillery units may attack alone, in concert with other Barraging Artillery and/or Ground Support, or in concert with any Friendly units making adjacent attacks, adding their bombarding

Combat Strength to the attack. These attacks are called Combined Attacks


When Friendly units are attacking adjacent Enemy units in more than one hex, the Barraging Artillery units need be within range of only one of the defending units to add their Barrage Strength to the attack.

Start of page

[8.3] Adjacent Attacks


When adjacent to an Enemy unit, Artillery units must participate in an attack against adjacent Enemy units. In making this attack, the Artillery unit uses its Barrage Strength.


When attacking from an adjacent hex, Artillery units may attack as many units as they are adjacent to, but may not attack non-adjacent units.


Artillery units attacking from an adjacent hex must suffer all the Combat Results of their attacks.


Barrage attacks may be made across Escarpment hexsides.

Start of page

[8.4] Final Protective Fire


A non-Phasing Artillery unit which has not yet been subject to a successful attack in the current Combat Phase, had suffered no adverse Combat Results in the previous Combat Phase, and is not adjacent to an Enemy unit, may use its Final Protective Fire Strength (FPF) to supplement the Defense Strength of a Friendly unit which is under attack. If a non-Phasing Artillery unit has been displaced, had suffered a Combat Result in the previous Combat Phase, or is adjacent to an Enemy unit, it may not use its FPF during the current Enemy Combat Phase.


The Friendly defending unit receiving Final Protective Fire must be in range of the Artillery unit providing the FPF. This range is computed to the hex occupied by the defending unit (the Friendly unit), not to the hex occupied by the attacking unit (the Enemy unit).


FPF Strength Points are simply added to the Defense Strength of the unit receiving Final Protective Fire.


When an Artillery unit supplies FPF, it neither benefits nor suffers from the Combat Result.


FPF may not be used to supplement the Defense Strength of a Friendly unit which is under attack solely by Enemy Artillery (either adjacent or non-adjacent) and/or Ground Support.


The non-Phasing Player allocates FPF only after the Phasing Player announces the total Attack Strength he will employ to resolve a particular attack.

Start of page

[8.5] Defense

When an Artillery unit is attacked in any fashion, it uses its Defense Strength, not its FPF.

Start of page

[8.6] Terrain Effects


An Artillery unit may use its Barrage or FPF Strength anywhere within its Range Allowance, regardless of intervening terrain or units (either Enemy or Friendly).


Defending units benefit fully from the terrain in the hex they occupy when attacked by Artillery (regardless of range). Defending units do not receive any hexside benefits if attacked solely by Artillery and/or Ground Support. Defending units do receive hexside benefits if they are subject to a Combined Attack involving adjacent non-Artillery units, all of which are attacking across the terrain hexside type in question.

Start of page

[9.0] Ground Support

General Rule:

Some Artillery and/or Air Power in the game is not represented by units, but rather by the allocation of Ground Support Points on a Game-Turn by Game-Turn basis. These Points are allotted on the Turn Record/Reinforcement Track. Ground Support Points are presumed to come from off the playing area and do not have any range limitations (unless otherwise stated in the Exclusive Rules).


Ground Support Points may be used during any Combat Phase, exactly as if they were Artillery, and can function as Barrage or FPF. Example: A Player has 10 Ground Support Points allocated in a given Game-Turn. When he is the Phasing Player, he may use these Points as Barrage Strength Points. When he is the non-Phasing Player, he may use these same Points as FPF.


[9.1] Restrictions and Prohibitions


One Ground Support Point equals one Artillery Strength Point (both Barrage and FPF).


A Player may assign all available Ground Support Points to one target unit, or he may split them up between as many targets as he sees fit.


Ground Support Points have unlimited range. They may attack any Enemy unit on the map.


Ground Support Points may not be accumulated from Game-Turn to Game-Turn. If they are not used in the Turn allocated, they are lost.

Start of page

[10.0] Minefields

General Rule:

Axis and Allied Minefield hexsides are represented on the map. Minefields are considered permanent terrain features, which can neither be created nor destroyed during the course of a game.


[10.1] Effect on Movement


Non-mechanized units must expend two additional Movement Points to cross a Friendly minefield. Mechanized units must expend four additional Movement Points to cross a Friendly minefield.


A unit may only cross an Enemy minefield if it occupies an adjacent hex at the beginning of the Friendly Movement Phase. The unit must expend its full Movement Allowance to cross the Enemy minefield; it must then stop and may move no further during the current Movement Phase. Note that the Movement Point cost for all other terrain features is ignored when a unit crosses an Enemy minefield.


The special Movement Point costs required to cross a minefield are not negated when a unit is moving via a Road or Trail.


A unit advancing after combat along the Path of Retreat may cross Enemy Minefield hexes freely (see Case 7.95, nr. 3).

Start of page

[10.2] Effect on Combat


A Friendly unit is not required to attack Enemy units if the opposing units are separated from the Friendly unit by a Friendly minefield. (Note that this forms an exception to Case 7.2). The Friendly unit must make no attacks or advances during its Combat Phase (though it maintains its Zone of Control). However, if the Phasing Player wishes the unit in question to attack, Case 7.2 applies with full vigor: all adjacent Enemy units must be attacked.


When a unit is attacked through an Enemy Minefield hexside, the Differential is found on the Minefield Line on the Combat Results Table if at least one adjacent Friendly unit participates in the attack. For example, if an Axis unit attacks an adjacent Allied unit through an Allied Minefield hexside, the combat is resolved using the Minefield column on the Combat Results Table. Note that the Minefield column is not used to resolve an attack made across a Friendly Minefield hexside, nor to resolve an attack made solely by non-adjacent Artillery units (and/or Ground Support).

Start of page

[10.3] Fortified Boxes

Fortified Boxes have the effect of altering the results of attacks against Allied units in them, when attacked solely through Minefield hexsides. They have no additional effect on movement cost for entering the hex.


"D2," "D1" and "Br" Combat Results against Allied units in Fortified Box hexes, when attacked solely through Minefield hexsides, are considered "no effect" results. All units involved must remain in place. (All other results remain unchanged.)


There are no Axis Fortified Boxes. Axis units never derive any benefit from Fortified Boxes.


Fortified Boxes can never be destroyed.

Start of page

[11.0] Anti-Tank Units

General Rule:

Anti-tank units are mechanized units which represent the massed batteries of anti-tank guns commonly employed by both sides during the North African Campaign. Anti-tank units have a special effect on combat (only).


[11.1] Effect on Combat


When an anti-tank unit, or any unit(s) adjacent to a Friendly anti-tank unit are attacked, the combat is resolved on the Anti-Tank line on the Combat Results Table, If at least one mechanized unit participates in the attack.


The Anti-Tank line may never be used to resolve an attack in which no mechanized units participate, or which is made solely by Barraging artillery.


If a non-Phasing Anti-Tank unit is displaced or forced to retreat, it forfeits its special effect for the remainder of that Combat Phase.


Example and Illustration (See other help pages.)


If a unit is in Rough terrain, it always uses the Rough terrain line of the CRT, regardless of AT defense.

Start of page

[12.0] Supply

General Rule:

A unit must be in supply in order to use its full Movement Allowance or to use its full Attack Strength. A unit which is not in supply is "unsupplied." To be in supply, a unit must be able to trace a Supply Path from the hex in which it is located to a Friendly Supply Source. A unit that is unsupplied for Movement at the beginning of the Friendly Movement Phase is considered unsupplied for that entire Movement Phase. Supply for combat is determined for each unit at the instant of combat.


[12.1] Supply Sources

Supply Sources are specified in the Exclusive Rules Folder.

Start of page

[12.2] Obstructed Supply Paths


A Supply Path is a series of contiguous hexes; it may not be made up of any of the following types of hexes or hexsides:

1) All-Sea hexsides.

2) Enemy-occupied hexes.

3) Enemy Zones of Control (even if occupied by Friendly units.

4) non Road non Trail Escarpment hexsides.

5) Mountain hexes.

If a Supply Path between a unit and a Friendly Supply Source cannot be traced without passing through any of the prohibited hexes or hexsides listed above, the unit in question is unsupplied.


A Supply Path may not be traced through an Enemy Minefield hexside, unless a Friendly unit is in either hex adjacent to that hexside.


No supplied unit may move into an unsupplied position during the Movement Phase.


No unit may move into an unsupplied position during an advance after combat, even if it was already unsupplied in its attack. A unit may not move into an unsupplied position during a retreat after combat, unless there is no other alternative short of elimination.

Start of page

[12.3] Effects on Unsupplied Units


Supplied units' Movement Allowances and Combat Strengths are unimpaired.


The Movement Allowance of an unsupplied unit is halved (rounding fractions up). This halving takes place after any other effects on the Movement Allowance have been taken into account. For example, a unit with a Movement Allowance of fifteen would have an unsupplied Movement Allowance of eight.


The Attack, Barrage and Final Protective Fire Strengths of an unsupplied unit are reduced to zero. Note that an unsupplied unit must still attack adjacent Enemy units as required by the rules of combat. When resolving this combat, the Combat Differential is calculated by subtracting the defending unit's Defense Strength from zero. For example, if an unsupplied unit is attacking a unit with a Defense Strength of "2," the Combat Differential is "-2."


The Defense Strength of a unit is never affected by Supply.

Start of page

[13.0] Reinforcements

General Rule:

Players may receive Reinforcements. These appear during the Owning Player's Movement Phase on the Game-Turn indicated on the Reinforcement Schedule. The Reinforcement Schedule states the Game-Turn of appearance, the number of units, the Strength and Movement Value and the specific hex or map edge on which they enter.


During his Movement Phase, the Owning Player places a Reinforcing unit in the scheduled hex or on any hex of the specified map edge. The Owning Player may place Reinforcements at any time during his Movement Phase.


[13.1] Movement of Reinforcements


Reinforcements are presumed to be poised adjacent to the map. When placed on the map a Reinforcing unit expends Movement Points to enter the entry hex according to the Terrain Effects Chart. In almost all cases, the Reinforcements are entered onto a hex which has a Road leading off the map; these units expend Movement Points at the road movement rate to enter the map.


In several cases, more than one unit is scheduled to appear in the same hex on the same Game-Turn. These units are deployed off map, one behind the other, with the lead unit poised adjacent to the map entry hex itself. If the entry hex is a Road hex, a hypothetical road may be presumed to stretch off the map, away from the entry hex.


As each unit enters the map, it will pay the cost for entering the entry hex, plus any additional cost for any hypothetical Mixed terrain hexes that it would have to traverse to reach the entry hex. If units are entering on a Road hex, they are considered to be moving through hypothetical Road hexes until they reach the map. Example:

The lead unit in the column would pay ½ Movement Point to enter the map; the second would pay 1 Movement Point to enter the map; the third, 1½ Movement Points, etc., etc.


Once on the map, Reinforcements may be moved normally. The Owning Player may begin the arrival of his reinforcements at any time during his movement phase.

Start of page

[13.2] Restrictions


Reinforcements may not enter a hex which is, at that point, occupied by an Enemy unit. A Reinforcing unit may enter an Enemy-controlled hex (but it must cease movement therein).


If, and only if, a scheduled entry hex is occupied by an Enemy unit, or a Friendly unit in an Enemy Zone of Control, the Reinforcing unit may enter the nearest unblocked map edge hex to the scheduled hex, in the direction of the nearest Friendly unit.


A Player may deliberately withhold Reinforcements from Game-Turn to Game-Turn, bringing them into play (if at all) on some later Turn.


Regardless of whether a Reinforcement unit is brought into play on its scheduled Turn, it must appear in its scheduled hex or alternate (see Case 13.22).


Until they enter the map, Reinforcements have no effect on play; they may in no fashion attack Enemy units or hinder their movement until they enter the map.

Start of page

[14.0] Exiting the Map

General Rule:

Players may exit their units from the map. An exiting unit must expend Movement Points to enter an imaginary hex presumed to be adjacent to the map edge. The terrain in this imaginary hex is presumed to be similar to the terrain in the hex from which the unit exited.


[14.1] Restrictions


Once a unit exits the map it may not return.


Exited units are not considered eliminated (but see Case 14.13) and are kept separated from eliminated units.


A unit may not exit the map as a result of combat. If it does so, then it is eliminated. Units may only exit the map during the Owning Player's Movement Phase.

Start of page